Programme Notes: Instrumental Ensemble

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String Quartets


SONATA FOR TWO PIANOS 'The Lord will be a Refuge for the Oppressed; a Refuge in times of trouble' Opus 40 (1987)

Duration 20' 

3 movements

The Interdenominational Society for Soviet Jewry existed during the years of the communist regime in the USSR. It campaigned in the west for the release of Jews who were held in the USSR against their will. Andrew Downes saw in the plight of the “Refusniks” parallels with the tribulations and persecution suffered by the Jews throughout their history. In his Sonata for Two Pianos he turned mainly to the Old Testament and particularly to the Psalms for his inspiration.

The opening of the work is inspired by Psalm 10 verse 1:

“Why standest Thou afar off, O Lord, why hidest thou thy face in times of trouble?”

The music begins full of yearning and has at the same time a Jewish character. A more comforting mood then takes over, inspired by Psalm 69 v.33:

“For the Lord heareth the poor and despiseth not His prisoners.”

The movement moves into a long, energetic and agitated section before the yearning of the opening re-emerges. The end of the movement is full of pathos, but at the same time optimism.

The second movement is for the most part meditative in mood, inspired by Psalm 80, which likens the Jewish people to a vine which God brought out of Egypt and planted. It grew and spread, but its enemies cut it down. Twice in the movement the music becomes excited and perturbed, each time returning to the predominantly reflective mood.

The music moves into the third movement without a break and by means of a jubilant passage, which wants to herald a future of great hope. There immediately follows, however, a passage of sinister foreboding. The movement swings from the one mood to the other, but the final coda is a return to jubilation, like an announcement from God beckoning his people and their turning to him. In its final version the theme goes into “slow motion” as they walk to their refuge of eternal peace:

“Open the gates of Righteousness. I will go into them and I will praise the Lord.” (Psalm 118, verse 19)


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STRING QUARTET No.1 Opus 14 (1977) 17'
3 movements

The first movement of this quartet opens with a broad, song-like melody on cello, over a busy spiccato accompaniment on the upper instruments.  The violins and viola, in a strident bridge passage, carry the movement through to a second subject which is at first full bodied and then meditative in character.  The cello melody which opened the movement then becomes the central feature of a frenzied fugato development which comes to its climax in an inverted and emotionally heightened version of the second subject.  The strident bridge passage which linked the first two subjects now reappears to lead the movement into a jubilant recapitulation of the broad theme of the opening.

The second movement opens romantically with a serene, lilting melody played in octaves by the violins, with a lazy Alberti accompaniment.  The relaxed atmosphere seems to lead naturally into a jazz-like middle section, where each instrument appears to be improvising and yet is forming part of a tightly knit contrapuntal texture.  The serene, lilting melody reappears to close the movement.

Jubilant in mood and dance-like in character, the third movement also has a strong element of jazz.  The first theme has strong links with the opening melody of the second movement, but here it is attacking and rhythmical, with syncopated dialogue and double stopping.  The cello then takes on the role of the jazz-band double bass, and leads with a pizzicato accompanying theme into the main dance-like tune of the whole movement.  The opening theme returns briefly, but is quickly interrupted by a reappearance of the cello pizzicato theme, which becomes dominant, building up to a frenetic climax, and leading back to the big dance tune.  Here the first violin indulges in a soaring jazz-like descant.  The movement comes to its climax with a fugato-like development of the opening theme.  The viola and the cello, now with strident bowing, take up the cello's former pizzicato theme, while the violins punctuate with high triads, to bring the work to a jubilant conclusion.


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